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3 Jun, 2011

AIDS at 30: Nations at the Crossroads

A report entitled “AIDS at 30: Nations at the Crossroads” is being launched to coincide with the 30 year anniversary of the discovery of the first AIDS cases and come in advance of the UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on AIDS that will take place in New York from 8-10 June.

The full report can be accessed here. The following are some key facts and figures from the report for Asia and the Pacific Asia regions:

§ In Asia Pacific, the number of people living with HIV appears to have remained stable for the past five years and estimated new infections are 20 percent lower than in 2001.

Ø Thailand, Cambodia and southern India have turned their epidemics around by providing quality services to their most at-risk populations.

Ø Cambodia is one of only eight countries worldwide to have reached universal access to antiretroviral therapy.

Ø Thailand, Malaysia have reported 80 percent coverage of prevention of parent-to-child transmission services.

§ But gains are fragile. Despite efforts, the HIV epidemic continues to outpace the response.

Ø Communities most vulnerable to HIV – sex workers, drugs users, men who have sex with men, transgender people –are not being well enough reached for HIV prevention and treatment.

Ø Treatment sustainability is facing a double challenge of unmet funding needs and threats to access to affordable drugs.

Ø 90% of the countries in the region have laws or practices that hamper access to HIV services for people living with HIV and/or people from key affected populations.

Ø Countries must honour their commitments to the AIDS response and increase domestic funding – international funding accounts for more than 50% of AIDS spending in most of the region’s countries.

Stand-out facts and statistics for Asia and the Pacific

§ Coverage of antiretroviral therapy at the end of 2009

Ø Over 80% – Cambodia

Ø 61-80% – Malaysia, Thailand

Ø 21-40% – Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam

Ø Under 20% – Bhutan, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan

§ HIV-positive pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries receiving antiretrovirals to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV in 2009

Ø Over 80% – Thailand, Bhutan, Malaysia

Ø 61-80% – Myanmar

Ø 21-40% – China, India

Ø Under 20% – Indonesia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Pakistan, PNG, Philippines, Sri Lanka

§ Knowledge of people aged 15-49 of condom use as an HIV prevention method, selected countries, 2003–2010

Ø Cambodia, 2005 study, Females: 92.0%; Males: 88.5%

Ø India, 2005–06 study, Females: 74.3%; Males: 39.2

Ø Philippines, 2008 study, Females: no data; Males: 54.3%

Ø Viet Nam, 2005 study, Females: no data; Males: 57.90%

§ People (15–49) reporting condom use at last sex if had more than one sex partner in the last year

Ø Cambodia, 2005 study, Females: 7.6%; Males: 41.1%

Ø India, 2005–06 study, Females: 11.5%; Males: 22.7%

Ø Nepal, 2006 study, Females: no data; Males: 29.6%

Ø Viet Nam, 2005 study, Females: no data; Males: 57.90%

§ All but four countries in Asia were allocating inadequate resources to HIV in 2009.

§ Figures available on experience of stigma and discrimination by people living with HIV in China (eg: 30% have been verbally assaulted; 75% feel ashamed; 14% have had employment refused. etc)

§ Of the ten countries with highest estimated under-five mortality due to HIV, 2009, India is at 8th place with 7700 estimated deaths in 2009 (range 3,200-14,000)

§ Of the ten countries with highest burden of HIV-related TB, 2009, India is at 2nd place with best estimate of 130 000 cases (range 54 000-240 000), which represents 10.20% of the global burden.