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12 Dec, 2007

A Traditional Balinese Solution To Climate Change

“We have created such an artificial environment with a range of modem conveniences to the point of total dependency on them. We look up to people who are hectic and busy and consider them to be ideal citizens. As a result, many of us compete fiercely, allowing hardly any time to simply sitting and observing our inner or outer environment.”

A series of  dispatches on the UNFCCC climate change conference in Bali.

In this dispatch:












By I Gusti Raka Panji Tisna

In 1999. I wrote a short article entitled “Nyepi, the Silent Day” for the Bali Travel News, a biweekly English publication on Bali’s Tourism and Culture, for the occasion of welcoming Nyepi, which marked the arrival of Saka New Year 1921, seventy eight years behind the Gregorian year. The Saka New Year is “celebrated” in Bali by silence (Nyepi) for a period of 24 hours, where the Balinese and others living on the island refrain from working, going out of the house, lighting fire, making noise and indulging in pleasurable activities.

The short article (reprinted below with minor editing) was written to inform Bali’s international visitors of what Nyepi is, how it is observed, and to point out its present state amidst the modem world and its positive global environmental impacts.

It is interesting to see that eight years later, in 2007, an idea parallel to my casual remarks about Nyepi’s positive global environment impacts is seriously thought through by a group of people under the Bali Collaboration on Climate Change, a civil society forum initiated by several NGOs and supported by the Third World Network, to introduce the concept of Nyepi and its direct contribution to cut Green House Gases emission during the Conference of the Parties, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Nusa Dua Bali, 3-14 December 2007. And interestingly, through a providential twist, I am to be part of the group who will introduce Nyepi to this vital international forum.

Although the 13 members of Bali Collaboration on Climate Change are attending the conference mainly as observers, nevertheless, we will have several opportunities in the side events to introduce our centuries old local wisdom and practice, Nyepi, as a tangible action to cut Green House Gases emission, and propose to the world to observe some kind of World Silent Day or Silent Day for the Earth tentatively on March 21. The World Silent Day or Silent Day for the Earth is to encourage people of the world to stop (minimize) activity and energy consumption for one day to let the Earth rests.

Our idea has received full endorsement from the Balinese public. Furthermore, the Chairman of the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR-RI) Mr. Agung Laksono has made a statement that the Indonesian Government should accommodate the Balinese local wisdom to propose Nyepi as a day to allow the Earth rests, which resonates with the Government’s effort to mitigate global warming (Bali Post, 30 November 2007).


Reprinted article from Bali Travel News, 1999

On March 8th of this year (1999), we, the Balinese, are going to celebrate the Saka New Year or Nyepi of 1921. The Saka year is 78 years behind the Gregorian year since it was dedicated in 78 AD to mark the crowning of King Kaniska of the Kusana Dynasty, India. The New Year falls at the end of the Chaitra or Kesanga (the ninth month) of the Saka year which corresponds to a date sometimes in March or April. The Saka calendar presumably found its way to Bali through the spread of Hinduism from India to Java and eventually Bali.

For the Balinese, Nyepi is a day of silence and non-activity. Visitors arriving in Bali on that day can find the New Year a shock. Not only do they fail to see a grand celebration, an image often associated with Bali and New Year’s celebration, but also they find themselves stuck in the airport, or confined to the hotels during the 24 hour period. After all, the Balinese are “celebrating” Nyepi—a day of silence to welcome the New Year.

During other times, Bali is usually busy with life, rituals and celebrations owing to the island’s main religion, Balinese Hinduism which intertwines tightly with the socioeconomic life. One tangible aspect of this interconnection is the presence of a whole list of prescribed ceremonies to be performed by the Balinese. These ceremonies number in hundreds, differing in types and frequencies. They take place daily, every five days, monthly, every six months, and every year, as well as the major ones every ten, one hundred, and even a thousand years.

There are celebrations to honor the Gods, the ancestors, humans with their life cycles, and nature. And they take place at the State, community, clan, and family temples as well as at many other places. Traditionally, although the combination of ceremonies and working in the fields has kept most Balinese busy, nevertheless we still were able to maintain a pleasant way of life. More recently, however, tourism and modernization in general are changing this pleasant mode of life into a more and more hectic one. The notion of “time is ceremony” is now challenged by “time is money.”

Thanks to the foresight of our forerunners, we still have Nyepi: one day of the year reserved for silence when we can abandon social obligations and economic activities. On Nyepi we are suggested to refrain from lighting fire, working, feeding the senses, traveling or getting out of the house. Those of us who are serious about Nyepi even refrain from speaking. In its most ideal and truest form, Nyepi is to train the Balinese to be dead to the world but fully alive spiritually.

Outsiders may argue that Nyepi is a farfetched concept, impractical or even an impossibility in today’s world; that life, especially in big cities and industrialized nations, has grown so complex that it is practically impossible to halt even for a couple of hours, let alone for the whole 24 hours. That’s precisely where the problem of modern life lies.

We have created such an artificial environment with a range of modem conveniences to the point of total dependency on them. We look up to people who are hectic and busy and consider them to be ideal citizens. As a result, many of us compete fiercely allowing hardly any time to simply sitting and observing our inner or outer environment. We miss the opportunity to develop awareness of our actions and consequences, or noticing any sign of false belief.

Thus, we may also miss the opportunity to find true direction to follow. Many of us turn into highly productive but not necessarily effective and efficient robots who build incredible cities and machines, but who also wreck the very Earth we live in. And as we loss much of our sensitivity, we recklessly exploit our environment—pollute it, poison its land, air and water. In our forgetfulness, we ultimately poison ourselves.

Likewise in today’s modem Bali, the ideal of Nyepi is hard to meet. Some Balinese do not observe Nyepi consistently. And the pressure of modem economic life, the status quo, forces some Balinese to still have to serve or amuse tourists stuck in their hotels.

A cynic may asks, what good does Nyepi do then? Well, one day is better than none. The reality is that there is hardly any society in the world with a population of nearly 3.5 million people that does what Bali does. To rest an entire island for a day in the 21st Century takes a mighty conviction. And think of the positive environmental impacts generated by even one day of non-activity by more than three million people who otherwise ride thousands of cars and motorbikes, operate modem machineries and gadgets. On such day the world most certainly experiences its lowest levels of CO2 and CO, noise pollution and waste generation.

Imagine if countries of the world agree to take turn to observe a day of silence. And imagine a global day of silence!

Consider our “celebration” of Nyepi in Bali an inspiration to the rest of the world that life is not all about producing and consuming but also about resting and reflecting. And that it is possible to rest for a full day or more without causing the world to collapse.

I Gusti Rata Panji Tisna, Student and Promoter of Spiritual, Ecological, and Aesthetical Literacy Bali, Indonesia. [panjiku@ telkom.net]



A group of young environmental campaigners from the UK, Sweden, Indonesia and the Philippines is in Bali to lobby world leaders at the UN climate change conference. The four teenagers, all winners of national competitions, want to raise awareness of how climate change and other environmental issues are affecting their lives and call for action from political leaders to prevent future catastrophe.

The children are in Bali claiming their right to a voice within these negotiations. They will be calling on their country delegates to listen to the views of children and prioritise negotiating for their needs, given it is children who will be facing the consequences of the decisions made during this conference.and beyond.

All the children have been involved in projects in their own countries, designed to raise awareness, and do something practical to cope with climate change. They are in Bali as part of a new international research programme called Children in a Changing Climate (CCC) Programme. The Bali conference is the first stage in a process where CCC partners are supporting these four children to observe the negotiations, challenge negotiators and government ministers and help design a process whereby thousands of their peers worldwide can get their voices heard during the forthcoming Copenhagen climate conference in 2009.


Thomas Bielby. 16, is from Middlesborough and a member of young NCB. He won the NCB’s climate change competition with his DVD on climate change and how adults, schools, young people and the government can all work together to fight it. “Seeing how other countries plan to include the voices of children and young people in their plans to tackle climate change will be exciting,” says Thomas.

Hanna Sundwall, 16, is from Stockholm in Sweden. A green campaigner in her home country, Hanna wants politicians to give young people a chance to influence the climate debate. “After all, Hanna says, “the decisions made in Bali will affect me more than those actually making the decisions”.

Hezel Candelario, 15, is from Masbate Island in the Philippines. A youth leader and head of a local youth organisation (PAYCO), Hezel and her colleagues are campaigning against the pollution, illegal fishing and pesticide use which are harming the environment in Masbate. “We have to learn to protect our environment,” says Hezel. “Children need to have a voice in the fight against global warming and we can do much to help educate our community.”

Eni Andri Yani, 17, is a student at Sudirman Kedung Jati Senior High School in central Java, Indonesia. She has carried out research into illegal logging that has caused massive destruction of the local tropical rain forest. “Deforestation has led to landslides and affected the water supply. We have to learn to respect and care for our environment before it is too late.”


Plan is a global child-rights organisation which operates in some 50 countries throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America. Celebrating its 70a anniversary this year, Plan supports over ten million children and their families in countries where up to one in five children die before the age of five. Plan’s development and disaster management work aims to provide specific support to vulnerable communities to help them minimise, manage and mitigate the effects of climate change on their lives.. www.planuk.org

National Children’s Bureau (NCB) promotes the voices, interests and well-being of all children and young people across every aspect of their lives. As an umbrella body for the children’s sector in England and Northern Ireland, we provide essential information on policy, research and best practice for our members and other partners. www.ncb.org.uk

IDS (Institute for Development Studies) is a leading global organisation for research, teaching and communications on international development. The Climate Change and Disasters Research Group at IDS works with multiple research and NGO partners worldwide to provide research, analysis and knowledge services on international development in a changing climate.


The visit to the UNFCC Conference in Bali is being coordinated by Plan International in cooperation with the UK National Children’s Board (NCB) and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) as part of a programme investigating the role children can play in reducing risks from disasters and adapting to climate change.

Plan International works in disaster zones across the developing world to make sure that children have a say in the struggles to prevent, prepare for and respond to disasters such as floods, cyclones and landslides. Plan’s experience working with children in disaster zones is expanding into the climate change arena with the knowledge that climate change is set to bring a greater number of catastrophes – hitting the poorest people the hardest.

Understanding how children’s futures are likely to be affected in the face of increasing climate related disasters is the focus of new research by Plan in partnership with the Institute of Development Studies.

The CCC programme will research the impacts of increasing numbers and intensity of disasters, changes to livelihoods in drought and flood-prone areas, and new patterns of migration on children’s futures. The programme will also research children’s rights to climate change adaptation.

The UK National Children’s Bureau is also engaging young people in the UK with an interest in challenging climate change in the CCC programme. All three organisations believe children have the power to create change in their communities and in international policy making. Accordingly they must be given a voice in decision-making at every level.

The CCC programme is connecting young people from across the globe to share understanding of climate change and the impacts it is having on the world’s poorest people, so that they can develop a strategy to make their voices heard.



December 9, 2007, Kuta Beach, Bali — An international coalition of youth, along with local and national NGOs, coordinated a striking aerial art project on Kuta beach in Bali today. Artist John Quigley organized the crowd of over a thousand people to arrange their bodies to form an image of the world being washed away by the rising tide. Above this image, more people spelled the words “Act Now,” a message designed to target the UN Climate Negotiations at the beginning of their critical second week.

“This was an extraordinary event for the global grassroots movement around climate change,” says American youth delegate Will Bates. “The joint participation of local community groups and international activists was inspiring symbol of how the world needs to come together to tackle climate change, the greatest challenge of our time.”

When photographed from above, the image depicts half of the world awash in rising ocean waters, symbolizing how the nations representing the Global South will suffer the most severe impacts of climate change. Activists sponsoring the event are calling for a “Bali breakthrough” that would trigger the momentum needed for resolving the climate crisis. A successful Bali Mandate from this year’s UN Conference would ensure there is no gap between commitment periods and that actionable items and processes are defined in Bali to work towards a 2009 consensus focused on strong and binding global emissions targets. Professional photos of the event can be provided on request or at: http://www.stepitup2007.org/bali



December 10, 2007 — Bali-based environmental and humanitarian ocean swimmer Monte Monfore will swim seven kilometers from Serangan Island to Nusa Dua as part of the December 3-14 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Bali. Continuing his series of swims promoting the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the 47-year-old American’s Reverse Climate Change Swim will focus on Millennium Development Goal number Seven: Ensure Environmental Sustainability, and highlight the serious threat climate change poses to the world’s endangered Cores reefs. The ocean lover will speak about the “dying ocean” and the steady decline he has witnessed over the last 15 years. As a solution, Monte and renowned Coral Ecologist, Dr. Thomas J. Goreau, will introduce an innovative reef restoration process called Blorock.

The endurance athlete’s Reverse Climate Change Swim message is that the responsibility to fight global warming lies not only with business and government. The collective behavior of earth’s six billion plus inhabitants has a huge impact. Monte will encourage people around the world to make individual efforts to reverse climate change by reducing their carbon footprints.

The swimmer will invite others to “join the growing chorus of citizens worldwide becoming part of the Green Generation.” Beach banners will offer ‘reduce your carbon footprint” advice, list the UN Millennium Development Goals, and display slogans such as One Ocean One World, Save the Reefs, Take Care of Mother Earth, Save the Rain Forests, Think Green – Live Green, etc.

In addition to swimming to raise awareness of ocean conservation and for Indonesian tsunami victims following the December 2004 disaster, in 2006 Monte began swimming in support of the United Nations. The Reverse Climate Change Swim will be the native Californian’s sixth UN-related swim in 20 months.

The Reverse Climate Change Swim is supporting Bali-based Baitul Muslimin Orphanage. Event main sponsor Circle K will present a donation to the children at post-swim press conference. The event will be carbon neutral as trees will be planted by event sponsor American Express to offset event-produced carbon emissions. The humanitarian swimmer will, as per his usual routine, wear a white wrist band during his swim as a symbol of commitment to the Global Call to Action Against Poverty.

Before his swim the athlete will consume five large glasses of a high-calorie drink consisting of ten eggs, protein powder, fruit, yogurt, and peanut butter. Because of the warm ocean water temperature and concern about dehydration, Monte will take a ten-second break to consume a sports drink approximately every 15 minutes. The marathon swimmer strictly obeys the rules of ocean swimming: no wetsuit, no fins, and no touching the support boat.

Monte will dedicate his swim to Mother Earth, announcing “it’s all of our responsibility to protect and safeguard this fragile planet for future generations.” Two large, endangered green turtles purchased from fisherman will be released to the sea by the athlete and Baitul Muslimin children at beginning of swim. Starting 9am at Serangan Island, the seven-kilometer, approximately 2-hour swim will finish on Nusa Dua beach in front of event sponsor Westin Resort between 11am and 12pm. Further info: www.monteswimmer.com



5 December 2007 – Burung Indonesia reveals substantial actions for the climate. As the Indonesian partner of BirdLife International – a global partnership with the slogan “for birds, habitat and people” – Burung Indonesia’s actions for forest conservation are also important for the global climate.

Tropical forests are crucial habitats for biodiversity, but their importance for the climate is also undeniable. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change reported in the fourth assessment that deforestation accounts for up to 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions annually. The significance of this amount dictates that deforestation needs to be tackled urgently, and halted within a decade to ensure our future.

In Indonesia, forests are designated for management to meet two separate goals, forest protection/conservation and timber production; with approximately half the forest estate in each category. This distinction seems to lead to a lack of effort towards the achievement sustainable management of production forest, as the high deforestation rate in these forests shows.

But now, Burung Indonesia and partners have tried to reverse the deforestation trend in production forests through an ecosystem restoration initiative. “This is the turning point for the natural forests allocated as state production forest. With a new regulation in place for Indonesia, a national license owner can now have management rights for a concession of production forest but chose not to log,” said Sukianto Lusli, the director of Burung Indonesia.

The initiative contributes both to climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation, and is also designed with the needs of the local community in mind. “The restoration process starts with a logging moratorium and enacting sustainable forest management,” said John Lanchbery, Principal Advisor for Climate Change for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) -RSPB is one of the partners in the ecosystem restoration initiative. “Both processes, in essence, address the drivers of deforestation and hence are important for climate change mitigation,” John emphasized.

Burung Indonesia’s work in production forest adds a third “action unit” to their efforts to improve forest management in Indonesia – the previous two being protected area management and sustainable landscape management. Both of the latter have also contributed significantly through creation of a legitimate boundary marking process for protected areas, such as National Parks, and sustainable spatial planning to eliminate conflicts that often become the driver of deforestation. http.//www.burung.org



Bali and Geneva, 08 December 2007 — Representatives from Red Cross and Red Crescent societies from all around the world will this Sunday (9 December) be planting mangroves on behalf of the participants of the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali. “The point of this event is to bring the discussion out of the conference rooms and into the communities that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change,” explained Madeleen Helmer, the head of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre. “As the worlds largest humanitarian organization we are uniquely suited to mobilize communities on the critical issue of adaptation.”

Ms Helmer adds that tree planting is an example of the meaningful steps that communities need to take to reduce the impacts of natural disasters. “Mangroves act as a buffer against wind and waves, saving lives in extreme cases, but also protecting homes and livelihoods.”

The trees will be planted along an exposed beach near the village of Tanjung Benoa, on the west coast of Bali’s Nusa Dua peninsula. So far, Red Cross volunteers have planted two thousand of the planned ten thousand mangroves along the village coastline in preparation for this event.

According to Simon Missiri, the deputy head of the International Federation’s delegation in Bali, steps such as planting mangroves, have a major role to play in helping communities adapt to the climate related changes that are already taking place. However, he expressed concern that the need to respond to the current ramifications of climate change is often missing in global discussions on the issue.

“Unfortunately, discussions about climate change are too focused on reducing future impacts, through cuts to carbon emissions,” he said. “This is of course, vitally important. But people are already suffering because of climate change. Their needs have to be central to everything that is happening here at this conference.”

Even under a best-case scenario, the greenhouses gases already in the atmosphere will take decades to dissipate, and during this time will continue to lead to an increase in the frequency and intensity of natural disasters. The International Federation is calling on governments gathered in Bali that adaptation to climate change is on equal footing with mitigation. Specifically, the International Federation is calling for the following in Bali:

1. For a decision to be taken to prioritize climate risk reduction for the most vulnerable people, specifically the poorest people in the poorest countries.

2. For a target for adaptation funding, and a plan on how to mobilize and implement those additional resources to be included in the post 2012 regime to be agreed in Copenhagen in 2009.

3. For a decision to be taken on an immediate increased investment in adaptation in developing countries in 2008-2012.

The International Federation, the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross together constitute the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Further info: www.ifrc.org.



Nusa Dua, Bali (December 8, 2007). The Climate Change Conference in Bali is getting hotter – especially the discussions on the forestry sector. As the Government of Indonesia explained at the Ministry of Forestry parallel event, currently some 66 million hectares of Indonesia’s forest estate are allocated for production purposes. Of this area, 26 million hectares are natural forests currently under concession license, with the remainder comprising plantations and unlicensed natural forest concessions. With rapid deforestation rates in the production forests, there is no doubt that natural forests will be lost forever if the focus of forest management remains solely on timber production.

A management approach to production forest that focuses narrowly on timber extraction results in great damage to Indonesia’s unique biodiversity. Finding the right balance is crucial, as around 56% of areas in Indonesia that have been identified as important for biodiversity are currently not situated in a conservation forest. Indonesia’s rich biological treasures will rapidly vanish if the current deforestation rates in production forest continue.

“Production forests are not just for timber,” said Agus Budi Utomo, Head of Conservation Program, Boning Indonesia. “And this understanding has now been supported through the issuance of Government of Indonesia Regulation No 6/2007 that provides an opportunity to restore the ecosystem in production forest concessions.” According to Agus, this kind of restoration approach can give forests a chance to rehabilitate, and can be implemented alongside activities to generate income from the utilization of non-timber forest products and other environmental services.

Burung Indonesia is protecting the country’s rich biodiversity by implementing the first ecosystem restoration concession site on the ground. The initiative, situated in Sumatra’s lowland rainforest, encompasses an area of 101,000 hectares and aims to rehabilitate an area of degraded natural forest to its natural state.

“We need to raise awareness to change the mindset that production forests are only for timber,” said Sukianto Lush, Executive Director of Burung Indonesia. Through this pioneering approach, the unique and important biodiversity of Indonesia can be saved. http://www.burung.org



Bali, 11 December — The environment and development organisation Germanwatch and the Munich Reinsurance today presented the Climate Risk Index (CRI) at the UN climate negotiations in Bali. The Index shows that less developed countries often suffer far more from storms, floods and weather extremes than industrialized nations. In 2006, Asia was particularly affected. Germanwatch views the results of the Index as further evidence that a central task of the climate summit in Bali is to agree on a negotiation mandate that limits the risks of climate change, and at the same time assissts those countries particularly affected with adapting to negative impacts.

Sven Hamieling, senior advisor for climate and development at Germanwatch and author of the study: “The most affected Countries in 2006 were the Philippines, the Democratic Republic of Korea and the host of the ongoing climate summit, Indonesia. In both the Philippines and in Indonesia there were almost 1300 deaths and damages ranging in the billions due to storms and floods. While the absolute numbers are far lower than those in the US or China, they alone are not sufficient to judge the extent to which a country was affected, according to Harmeling.

“That’s why Germanwatch’s Climate Risk Index also includes relative indicators. In Korea there were four times as many deaths per 100.000 inhabitants due to weather extremes than there were in Indonesia”, Harmeling explains. In average over the last 10 years, Honduras, Nicaragua and Bangladesh have experienced the greatest impacts.

Peter Hoeppe, head of the Geo-Risk research department of Munich Reinsurance, on whose world renowned weather extremes database the Index is based: “The events of one year do not allow the direct conclusion of a causal relation with climate change. However since 1950 the incidence of big natural disasters through wind storms has doubled, while the frequency of floods and other extreme weather events such as heat waves and droughts has even quadrupled.”

“This clearly shows an increasing danger. The frequency of geophysical catastrophes on the other hand has only risen by a factor of 1.5. While this increase is likely to be due to socio economic factors, the far stronger rise in weather related catastrophes is shown with increasing certainty to be to a good part due to climate change”, Hoeppe explains. “Especially countries that have been hit hard by weather extremes in the past should take this as a prompt to pay greater attention to preventing such dangers”, Hoeppe advises and adds: “The industrialized nations, as the main causers of climate change, are in the responsibility to support such processes.”

Thomas Loster, managing director of the Munich Re foundation, emphasises that people in developing countries are most affected by weather catastrophes. Long-term studies reveal that about 80 per cent of the victims come from poor countries. “The ten natural disasters with the highest number of victims in 2007 occurred in poor countries”, says Loster. “There was only one among them that was not due to weather events. Climate change entails more frequent weather extremes and poor people are particularly vulnerable. This will increase the challenges that we fare in preventing disasters and in development cooperation,- he adds.

Klaus Milke, board chairman of Germanwatch, underscores the meaning of such projects for international climate politics. “Effective pre-emptive measures against weather extremes are of central significance for the adaptation to the consequences of climate change, which is high on the agenda of the climate conference in Bali”, said Milke. “And it’s worth it, as many studies show: one Euro invested can save multiples of lives.”



A fascinating picture has emerged from a unique survey of 1,000 climate decision makers and influencers from across 105 countries conducted by GlobeScan in the two weeks leading up to the Bali Climate Conference. Unlike public opinion polls, this survey focuses on the views of professionals in position to make or influence large decisions in their organizations and society. This focus, together with the survey’s large global sample and good balance of respondents across all geographies and sectors, makes this survey unique.

Three of the survey’s more provocative findings:

1. Decision makers rate bio-fuels produced from food crops like corn as having the LEAST potential of 18 technologies for reducing carbon emissions over the next 25 years.

2. Decision makers put surprisingly high emphasis on the protection of biodiversity and having sustainable development guide climate actions, while putting relatively low emphasis on cost effectiveness.

3. Decision makers expect fully half of their organization’s reductions of carbon emissions over the next decade to come from energy demand management or efficiency improvements.

Some of the other top-line findings of this survey of senior officials from governments at all levels, scientists, and business and civil society leaders, include:

<> Over six in ten (63%) report that climate is one of the top three factors affecting their organizations today.

<> On average, two thirds (66%) of the resources their organizations currently allocate to climate is directed at mitigation (i.e., reducing emissions) and one third (34%) to adapting to the affects of climate change. In five years they expect adaptation to increase somewhat, changing this ratio to 60-40.

<> In reducing their organization’s carbon emissions over the next 10 years, respondents expect half the reductions (48%) to come from energy demand management and efficiency improvements, a third (35%) to come from lower-carbon energy sources and 18 percent from carbon capture.

<> Respondents look to their national government (92%) ahead of global institutions (76%) or more local-level governments (71%) for the public policies and leadership that their organizations need in order to implement climate solutions.

<> When rating the potential role of 18 specific technologies “in reducing atmospheric carbon over the next 25 years without unacceptable side effects,” majorities give high marks only to solar, wind and co-generation (combined heat and electricity). The lowest rating is given to first generation bio-fuels from food crops.

<> Asked to rate various possible components of an adequate post-2012 global agreement, strong majorities give high ratings to inclusion of all major carbon-emitting countries (92% essential or important), commitment by wealthy countries to provide aid/technology transfer to assist developing countries meet targets (84%), legally binding targets for each signatory country (77%), and different types of commitments based on countries’ stage of development (76%).

<> Respondents also make clear that climate actions must be taken within the framework of sustainable development (87% important), ensuring the protection of biodiversity (78%), appropriate burden sharing (75%), energy security (75%), and setting an agreed maximum CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (74%).

<> Respondents are neither pessimistic nor optimistic that a post-2012 global agreement will be concluded by the UN target of December 2009 needed to ensure a smooth transition.

This survey is the first of a continuing series of twice-yearly surveys of climate decision makers and influencers across the world. (This first survey will continue to be fielded after Bali to fill out the number of qualified respondents.)

Conducted in the 6 official UN languages over the Internet by GlobeScan Incorporated, this initiative has the support of the World Bank, the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), along with a wide range of other organizations (please see logos on first slide attached). Further info: www.globescan.com

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